This is Galileo’s argument from “The Assayer,” which I encountered in both my history survey of modern philosophy and in metaphysics. Galileo. Galileo Galilei; Il Saggiatore (The Assayer); Rome, This quietly polemical text puts the case for a pared-down scientific conception of matter and a. Il saggiatore (The assayer) by Galileo Galilei (–) is the final and most significant work in the polemic regarding the characteristics of.

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The Assayer | work by Galileo |

That the comet was a mere image and appearance was never positively affirmed by us; it was merely raised as a question and offered for the consideration of philosophers, along with various arguments and conjectures that appeared suitable to show them this possibility. Hence the cause, the material, the place, and the method all differ between the two, and no correspondence exists except in both authors’ use of the word “refraction. For they believe that heat is a real phenomenon or property, or quality, which actually resides in the material by which we feel ourselves warmed [19].

Those materials which produce heat in us and make us feel warmth, which are known by the general name of “fire,” would then be a multitude of minute particles having certain shapes and moving with certain velocities. The location of the ear is most fittingly accommodated to all positions in space. Some of these sensations are more pleasant to us than others. In that way you will be able to find out just how much force human authority has upon the facts of Nature, which remains deaf and inexorable to our wishes.

The Assayer

When touched upon the soles of the feet, assayeg example, or under the knee or armpit, it feels in addition to the common sensation of touch a sensation on which we have. There they may learn that Archytas [10] made a dove that flew, that Archimedes made a mirror which kindled fires at great distances and many other remarkable machines, that other men have kindled perpetual fires, and a hundred more galilwo no less amazing.

Those who know very little of philosophy are numerous.

Another time, led by curiosity, be entered an inn expecting to see someone lightly bowing the strings of a violin, and instead he saw a man rubbing his fingertip around the rim of a goblet and drawing forth a pleasant tone from that. I will not carry this undeserved wound, and I shall write frankly what you, Sarsi, have left out; and since I cannot divine what passion gave rise to the omission, I leave it to you to explain that later in your apology.


I speak of Simon Mayr of Guntzenhausen. When we walk over a field into the sunlight, thousands of straws and pebbles that are smooth or moistened will reflect the sun in the aspect of the most brilliant stars.

Now is this to be a skillful and prudent experimentalist? This makes Sarsi’s quibble apparent. During the entire time the comet was visible I was confined by illness to my bed. But I do not think on gwlileo account that none can have taken place; it may have been too minute to be perceptible any balance whatever.

Hence if the living creature were removed, all these qualities would be wiped away and asssayer. And so much for his pretended priority of observation.

And who knows; perhaps in Sarsi’s eyes the pettiness of assayfr theft does not render me more blameworthy than I would be if I had bravely applied myself to greater [p. Up to this point Sarsi has gone along arbitrarily shaping his premises to fit the conclusions he meant to prove; now it seems to me that he proceeds to shape conclusions for the purpose of opposing them to Guiduccis and mine, for they are certainly different from those set forth in the Discourse, or galileoo least they are differently construed.

I ask Sarsi why it is that some organ pipes produce deep tones and some assayr. And even without waiting for a comet we might find an opportune time when in midsummer the air flashes with heat lightning, as you assign all these “burnings” to a single cause.

Works of Galileo Galilei, Part 3, Volume 15, Astronomy: The Assayer

If it is like our flames, then gailleo might have made us look at stars through our flames and left out firebrands, candlesnuffs, and such things.

In this way he observed the resulting effect and thus discovered the instrument. Of such usurpers I might name not a few. Next, you see, Sarsi represents me as being finally convinced by the force of his logic and snatching at some very slender straw by saying that if it is true the fixed stars fail to receive enlargement as do nearby objects, then at any rate this is because the same instrument is not used, as the telescope must be a longer one for very close objects.


The Assayer, early state | galileo

The notion was put forth so temperately by Guiducci that at the end he said, [p. But if you ever suggest this little game to Sarsi, and if he protests at great length, then I beg Your Excellency to tell him galleo I do not mean to imply by this that there is in the sky a gaileo carafe, and someone oiling it with his finger, thus forming a comet; I merely offer this as an example of Nature’s galileeo and variety of methods for producing her assaywr.

Well, if he succeeds I shall be the more obliged to him, as in the future I shall have one less theory to worry about when I set my mind to philosophizing on such matters. Only through mathematics can one achieve lasting truth in physics. Sarsi now prepares with admirable boldness to maintain, by means of acute syllogisms, that objects seen through the telescope are the more enlarged the closer they are, and he is so confident that he practically promises I shall come to admit this to be true, though at present I deny it.

I should be wasting my efforts, Is it possible that Sarsi has never observed the coolness produced on his face by the continual change of air when he is riding post?

I could offer many, and doubtless there are still others that we cannot imagine. And perhaps which they never shall have. Frankfort,pp. Email required Address never made public. In turn, that region of the vapor-laden air would be made brighter by this new fight and by the diffusion of that reflection.

And heat lightning occurs when no commotion is perceived in the air or in clouds. We meant only to address those men, ancient or modem, who try in all their [p. By reasoning about these they may easily discover, to their great honor and profit, how to construct such things.

But the last-named does not alter visible objects in any way, either by enlarging or reducing them; the concave diminishes them; and the convex, though it does enlarge them, shows them indistinctly and confusedly.

It is possible for part of something to be consumed and yet for it to gain weight instead of losing it.