Lukács, in his central text of History and Class Consciousness, and its central essay “Reification and the Consciousness of the Proletariat,” in particular, points . This book reads Georg Lukács’s History and Class Consciousness through the drafts of his unfinished philosophy of art (the so-called “Heidelberg Aesthetics”). Keywords: Lukács; Heidegger; Authenticity; Reification; Ontology. 1. Lukács on reification and Marxian alienation. Engels invented classical Marxism in Ludwig.

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For the complete knowledge of the whole would vouchsafe the knower a monopoly that would amount to the virtual abolition of the capitalist economy.

Reification (Marxism)

The capitalist process of rationalisation based on private economic calculation requires reificatino every manifestation of life shall exhibit this very interaction between details which are subject to laws and a totality ruled by chance.

Today, his most widely read works are the Theory of the Novel of and History and Class Consciousness of By contrast, the organic unities of pre-capitalist societies organised their metabolism largely in independence of each other.

Where the commodity is universal it manifests itself differently from the commodity as a particular, isolated, non-dominant phenomenon. Second, while science is always conceptually mediated, art breaks with the immediacy of everyday life in favor of a new immediacy of experience GW As the commodity becomes universally dominant, this situation changes radically and qualitatively.

They could only come into being in the bureaucratic state with its rational laws where He would not have been able to discover the solution to the real question. Academic Tools How to cite this entry.

There is little doubt that after the break their judgment on their early work was too harsh, that it contains more of value and had more impact on the later work than the authors were willing to admit.

The fate of the worker becomes the fate of society as a whole; indeed, this reificatkon must become universal as otherwise industrialisation could not develop in this direction.

For this reason, such works of art allow us to comprehend the universal aspects of our existence and to consciously participate in the collective life of humanity GW It is limited, however, by its luukacs formalism.

Thus capitalism has created a form for the state and a system of law corresponding to its needs and harmonising with its own structure. They not only dismiss the agency of the individual, they argue that subjectivity can no longer be identified with a version of the Cartesian cogito or transcendental ego. If only because the question of whether the qualitative content can be reifivation by means of a rational, calculating approach is no longer seen in terms of a rivalry between two principles within the same sphere as was the case with use-value and exchange value in economicsbut rather, right from the start, as a question of form versus content.


Later, when war broke out, he served as a political commissar in the Hungarian Red Army in this position, he also ordered the execution of several soldiers, see Kadarkay Here, too, there is a breach with the empirical and irrational methods of administration and dispensing justice based on traditions tailored, subjectively, to the requirements of men in action, and, objectively, to those of the concrete matter in hand.

When a form is imposed on life that is not a form of that specific mode of life or if the form in question cannot be realized in empirical lifesuch an imposition always runs the risk of distorting the meanings of the particular actions or persons.

Rationalisation in the sense of being able to predict with ever greater precision all the results to be achieved is only to be acquired by the exact breakdown of every complex into its elements and by the lukacz of the special laws governing production.

The core of this argument is the claim that the dominance of the commodity form in the economic sphere lukaccs necessarily lead to the dominance of rational calculation and formal reason in society as a whole. This has its foundation already in the nature of speculative calculation, i.

Georg [György] Lukács (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy)

They depart from the tradition by arguing that under capitalism these values cannot be achieved by isolated individuals subject to the laws of the market. They assume the form of commodities inasmuch as they are exchangeables, i.

Here we need only establish that labour, abstract, equal. Only in this context can the problem of modern bureaucracy be properly understood. But such a transcendence is unthinkable for a social group. What is specific to modern capitalism as lukads from the age-old capitalist forms of acquisition is that the strictly rational organisation of work on the basis of rational technology did not come into being anywhere within such irrationally constituted political systems nor could it have done so.


While on all three levels, entities appear as fixed objects, their real essence is always that of interrelated, rfification processes Reificahion Because a break with the organic unity and totality of human existence is a necessary precondition for this development, the commodity form must, over time, subject all social spheres to its rule.

Georg [György] Lukács

Exchange value has as yet no form of its own, but is still directly bound up lukacw use-value. Enhanced bibliography for this entry at PhilPaperswith links to its database. On this antagonism cf.

But with the difference that not every mental faculty is suppressed by mechanisation; only one faculty or complex of faculties is detached from the whole personality and placed in opposition to it, becoming a thing, a commodity.

The fact that the boundaries lack sharp definition must not be allowed to blur the qualitative nature of the decisive distinction. First, he had endorsed an optimism concerning the capacity of the proletariat to lukas such a totality in society through a revolutionary reificstion of reification; later on, this optimism was modified to encompass the ever increasing human capacities lukafs become self-conscious of their universal character through a reflection of the existing social totality in the totality of the work of art.

Oppression and an exploitation that knows no bounds and scorns every human dignity were known even to pre-capitalist ages.

But that is not all. Ljkacs the subject of the exchange is just as abstract, formal and reified as its object. However, the conceptualization of practice from the standpoint of aesthetics obscures its historical dimension. That lukas where barter begins, and from here it strikes back into the interior of the community, decomposing it.

This approach leads to two possible outcomes: That was an ambitious attempt to respond to a revolutionary situation in theoretical terms. However, both the potentiality to become a totality in virtue of their form and the normative demand to do so are timeless, a priori conditions of the possibility of works of art in the Neo-Kantian sense GW